Daily fitness regime

Almost 30-60% of Indians in urban India have been found to be overweight or obese or have abdominal obesity. It has also been found that Indians are at a higher risk of developing obesity related problems like Diabetes, Hypertension and Heart disease at lower cut off values for BMI (Body Mass Index) and Waist Circumference. Indians suffer inherently from a lower muscle mass or sarcopenia. This leads to several of the health problems like central or abdominal obesity that the Indian is more prone to. Our fat percentage and waist circumference is higher for a comparative body weight to our caucasian counterparts. This is one of the major causes for the higher incidence of diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease in the Indian subcontinent.

According to the Consensus statement for physical activity for Asian Indians (Misra et al JAPI vol 57 Feb 2009) -

Cut off values of BMI for the Indian population : Normal BMI = 18.0-22.9 kg/m
Overweight = 23-24.9 kg/m
Obesity = more than 25 kg/m

Consensus statement for cut off values for Waist circumference:

Women = 31.1 inches (80cm) and above should be considered obese Men = 35.5 (90 cm) and above to be considered obese requiring intervention. Definitions of Physical Activity Intensity Levels 1. Low-intensity physical activity elicits a slight increase in breathing rate. (e.g., slow walking 2. Moderate-intensity physical activity elicits a moderate, noticeable increase in depth and rate of breathing, while still allowing for conversation (e.g., walking 3–6 km/h on level firm ground, water aerobics, moderate intensity aerobics, cycling at a speed of 3. Vigorous-intensity physical activity elicits a noticeable increase in depth and rate of breathing. The individual will not be able to speak more than a few words without pausing for a breath (e.g. walking a kilometer in less than 10 minutes, jogging/running, cycling, higher intensity aerobic dancing, and jumping rope).

Body Mass Index (BMI)

BMI stands for Body Mass Index. It is a measure of body composition. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight and dividing by their height squared. For instance, if your height is 1.82 meters, the divisor of the calculation will be (1.82 * 1.82) = 3.3124. If your weight is 70.5 kilograms, then your BMI is 21.3 (70.5 / 3.3124) (see calculator links below).

The higher the figure the more overweight you are. Like any of these types of measures it is only an indication and other issues such as body type and shape have a bearing as well. Remember, BMI is just a guide - it does not accurately apply to elderly populations, pregnant women or very muscular athletes such as weightlifters.

Calculation of own BMI

Test Details

• equipment required: scales and stadiometer as for weight and height.
• description / procedure: BMI is calculated from body mass (M) and height (H). BMI = M / (H x H), where M = body mass in kilograms and H = height in meters. The higher the score usually indicating higher levels of body fat.
• scoring: Use the table below to determine your BMI rating. You can also use an ideal height and weight graph.

Men Women underweight < 20 < 19 healthy range 20-25 19-24 overweight 26-30 25-30 obese > 30 > 30 Height Weight Chart Men Women Height Weight Height Weight Cms Ft. Kg. Cms Ft. Kg 157 5'2" 56.3 - 60.3 152 5'0" 50-8 - 54.4 160 5'3" 57.6 - 61.7 155 5'1" 51.7 - 55.3 162 5'4" 58.9 - 63.3 157 5'2" 53.1 - 56.7 163 5'5" 60.8 - 65.3 160 5'3" 54.4 - 58.1 168 5'6" 62.2 - 66.7 162 5'4" 56.3 - 59.9 170 5'7" 64.0 - 68.5 165 5'5" 57.6 - 61.2 175 5'9" 67.6 - 72.6 170 5'7" 60.8 - 65.3 178 5'10" 69.4 - 74.4 173 5'8" 62.2 - 66.7 180 5'11" 71.2 - 76.2 175 5'9" 64.0 - 68.5 183 6'0" 73.0 - 78.5 178 5'10" 65.8 - 70.3 185 6'1" 75.3 - 80.7 180 5'11" 67.1 - 71.7 188 6'2" 77.6 - 83.5 183 6'0" 68.5 - 73.9 190 6'3" 79.8 - 85-9

Bone Building Exercises

• Two Types

– Weight Bearing Exercise: exercises where the weight of the body is transmitted through the bones, working against gravity e.g. walking, jogging, stair climbing, dancing, racquet sports
– Resistance Exercise: exercises that strengthen the muscles e.g. weight lifting
• Free weights or machines
• Tension and pressure transmitted to the bone through weight bearing and the action of muscles stimulates bone growth and repair
• Frequency
– Weight bearing exercise->2-3X/week
– Resistance training->2-3X/week
• Intensity
– Resistance training..80% of maximal effort
• Duration
– Weight bearing exercise..30 minutes/day
– Resistance training..3 sets of 8-10 reps/muscle Balance Exercises
• Prevent Falls
• Prevent fractures
• Easy to retrain balance
– standing with eyes closed
• Dramatic postural deformities
– Forward head posture with chin poking forward
– Significant rounding of upper back
– Flat and even rounded lower back
– Protruding Abdomen
– Difficult respiration & digestion
• Increased risk of falls
– Body’s center of gravity displaced
• Back & neck pain
• Loss of function Postural Exercises
– Tailored to the individual
– Decrease harmful stresses on the spine
– Reduce the risk of spinal fractures & rounded shoulders
– Strengthen the postural muscles
• Back extensors..Scapular retractors..abdominal muscles
– Stretch tight muscles
• Pectoral stretch..tight chest muscles
• Chin Tuck

Exercise Precautions For People with Osteoporosis

• Exercises must be tailored to the individual and their health status
• Excessive compressive stresses must not be put on weakened bones
– Avoid high-impact exercises..jumping, jogging
– Avoid activities where there is a high risk of falling
– Avoid flexion & rotation of the trunk
• Initially, exercise program should be supervised by a competent health care practitioner

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